Category: Humanitarian systems

2011 Edition of the Sphere Handbook Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response

This article describes the main provisions and updates to the minimum standards in food security and nutrition in the 2011 edition of the Sphere handbook.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 37)

A Time to Rethink the Global Food Regime

Summary of published paper.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 26)

ACF review of humanitarian reform

Summary of review.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 17)

Adapting to climate change

Summary of published paper.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 9)

Addressing poverty and undernutrition in India

Summary of research.

Issue 37, November 2009 (page 9)

Addressing staff turnover in humanitarian organisations

Summary of published research.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 7)

Affordability of the MDG for child survival

Arecent LANCET article1 estimates the cost of delivering comprehensive child survival interventions in 42 countries where 90% of global child deaths occurred in 2000.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 11)

Africa Forum 2009 - An experience in adult learning

This article describes how the principles of adult learning were used to deliver a highly participative and experiential conference, to better prepare each participant to tackle the challenges of HIV, food insecurity and malnutrition in their own context.

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 31)

Aid and Erosion of Humanitarian Principles in Sierra Leone

Published paper.

Issue 7, July 1999 (page 8)

Aid responses to Afghanistan: lessons from previous evaluations

Summary of report.

Issue 17, November 2002 (page 27)

All in Diary – a practical resource for those working in emergencies

The All In Diary is a web-based resource – with country-specific print versions – for field-based humanitarian workers, particularly those working in disaster situations.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 31)

ALNAP Annual Review 2002

The ALNAP Annual Review 20021 provides a synthesis of the principal findings and recommendations of evaluations of humanitarian action, completed and made available to ALNAP in 2000-2001.

Issue 18, March 2003 (page 13)

ALNAP review of humanitarian system

Summary of published report.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 14)

An information system in exile - Is it working?

An Evaluation of the Food Security Assessment Unit, Nairobi.

Issue 5, October 1998 (page 22)

An investigation of anthropometric training by NGOs

A recent cross-sectional study reported in Field Exchange investigated weighing scales used in emergency nutrition programmes specifically for infants less than six months old.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 6)

Assessment of the PROBIT approach for estimating the prevalence of acute malnutrition from population surveys

Summary of research.

Issue 45, May 2013 (page 12)

Call for strategic US approach to the global food crisis

Summary of report.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 8)

Can the Nutrition Information System be ‘trusted’ to build on available data sources?

In Ethiopia, the role of the national Nutrition Information System (NIS) has been clearly stated in the Ethiopian National Nutrition Programme (NNP). There are three constituent parts to this role.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 12)

Capacity Building in Times of Emergency: Experiences From Malawi

In this field article, Claire demonstrates how local capacity building is possible in an emergency setting, and describes the challenges and achievements of addressing severe malnutrition in Malawi, from AAH’s perspective.

Issue 21, March 2004 (page 28)

Capacity development of the national health system for CMAM scale up in Sierra Leone

Socio-economic status The Republic of Sierra Leone is situated on the West Coast of Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia. Its land area covers approximately 71,740 sq. km. The estimated projected population for 2011 is 5,876,936 inhabitants, of which approximately 37% reside in urban areas.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 40)

Challenges to implementing an integrated emergency public health response

Analysis of the underlying causes of malnutrition have shown it to be a complex process, thus interventions in non-emergency situations have attempted integrated responses by focusing on health, food, agriculture, water, economics, religion, traditional beliefs, social practice and welfare systems.

Issue 11, December 2000 (page 11)

Civil-military coordination during humanitarian health action

Summary of position paper.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 18)

cIYCF in Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe has a high prevalence of stunting (32%) and low prevalence of wasting/acute malnutrition (3%) (DHS 2011).

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 97)

CMAM in India: What happened next?

State-level actors in India have been quick to use the momentum established at the Community based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) Conference in Addis Ababa to take forward the severe acute malnutrition (SAM) agenda.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 88)

Co-ordinating a Humanitarian Response in Sudan

Paul Murphy, Regional Policy Adviser, Nairobi CONCERN and Peter Salama, Emergency Medical Co-ordinator, Dublin CONCERN provide an overview of the 1998 crisis in south Sudan and the humanitarian response.

Issue 6, February 1999 (page 4)

Combining two livelihood assessment approaches in Burundi

Summary of assessment report.

Issue 17, November 2002 (page 4)

Community management of acute malnutrition in Mozambique

Mozambique has just over 20 million inhabitants, of whom approximately 17% are less than five years of age. More than half of the population (55%) lives in poverty.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 46)

Concerns on Global HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Fund conflicts of interest

This article raises a number of issues about corporate sponsorship in the public health sector and as such is of interest to those working in the nutrition sector where ‘corporate capture’ is a much discussed issue (Ed).

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 34)

Constraints to achieving Sphere minimum standards for SFPs in West Darfur: a comparative analysis

This field article investigates the contextual factors influencing performance of two SFPs in Dafur, andhow these impact on achieving Sphere minimum standards.

Issue 30, April 2007 (page 2)

Creating an enabling policy environment for effective CMAM implementation in Malawi

The Community based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) approach aims to increase the coverage and accessibility of treatment for acute Malnutrition.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 74)

Critical gaps in drought response in Greater Horn of Africa

Summary of published research.

Issue 28, July 2006 (page 8)

Cuba

According to a news piece in the LANCET, the ’41- year battle of spite between Cuba and the USA has intensified’.

Issue 24, March 2005 (page 14)

Dangerous delay in responding to Horn of Africa early warnings of drought

Summary of briefing paper.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 10)

Deaths among humanitarian workers

Summary of published paper.

Issue 11, December 2000 (page 4)

DEC Sothern Africa Crisis Appeal

Summary of published report.

Issue 21, March 2004 (page 27)

Development of Kenya Food Security Coordination System (KFSCS)

Photos.

Issue 12, April 2001 (page 28)

Do poverty, poor health and nutrition increase the risk of armed conflict onset?

Summary of published research.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 8)

Donor incapacity linked to aid ineffectiveness in Africa

Summary of published article.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 7)

Donors in humanitarian action: changing roles, trends and issues

Summary of a published review.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 8)

Effectiveness of public health systems to support national rollout strategies in Ghana

Like most developing countries, Ghana is faced with high rates of malnutrition. According to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) 2008, 14% of children under five years are underweight, 28% are stunted and 9.0% wasted.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 22)

Effects of performance payments to health workers in Rwanda

Summary of published research.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 23)

EHNRI - Profile and role in the National Nutrition Programme

This article is based on a meeting between Carmel Dolan, ENN and Dr Cherinet, Director, Food Science and Nutrition Research Directorate.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 46)

Emergency Food Assistance Following Hurricane Mitch: an Evaluation of the WFP response

Summary of an Evaluation.

Issue 9, March 2000 (page 18)

Emergency intervention priorities from child wasting and mortality in the Horn of Africa

Summary of review.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 26)

Emergency relief workers: what skills do you need to be effective?

Summary of published paper.

Issue 13, August 2001 (page 7)

ENN launches en-net

An online forum (en-net) for urgent technical questions on emergency nutrition and food security has just been launched by the ENN, funded by the OFDA.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 22)

Equity in Donor Aid Allocation to Iraq

Two short articles in a recent issue of the Lancet question the overall level of aid given and pledged to post-conflict Iraq.

Issue 22, July 2004 (page 17)

Ethical research in conflict situations

Summary of published research.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 6)

Ethiopia: another 1984 famine?

This article is based on a review of recent literature as well as a number of interviews with humanitarian agency staff that have had long-term experience and knowledge of Ethiopia.

Issue 18, March 2003 (page 18)

Ethiopia: Challenge and Change (Special Supplement 3)

Concern WW is trying to create mutually reinforcing linkages between livelihood security26 and emergency programming at a number of levels.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 60)

Ethiopia’s Chronic Vulnerability Index

Summary of published research.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 11)

Evaluation of cluster approach in Mozambique

Summary of evaluation.

Issue 31, September 2007 (page 24)

Experiences of the Nutrition in Emergencies Regional Training Initiative

The upward trend in the frequency and magnitude of humanitarian disasters is set to continue and ongoing economic instability, escalating food and fuel prices, climate change and urbanisation are predicted to amplify humanitarian needs.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 51)

Famine in North Korea: Markets, Aid and Reform

Summary of book review.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 8)

Famine in Somalia and the failure of data driven humanitarianism

A recently published blog discusses the limitations of data-driven humanitarian efforts and the lessons learned from the 2011 Somalia famine.

Issue 45, May 2013 (page 6)

Food security in Eritrea and Ethiopia

Summary of published research.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 7)

Framework for integration of management of SAM into national health systems

In 2010, UNICEF approached VALID International to design and conduct a global mapping review of Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) with a focus on severe acute malnutrition (SAM).

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 58)

From emergency food aid to sustainable food security: 10 years of agricultural recovery in Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a country of breathtaking beauty inhabited by poets and warriors.

Issue 15, April 2002 (page 7)

From Pilot to Scale-Up: The CMAM Experience in Nigeria

This article describes the experiences of ACF, Save the Children and UNICEF in supporting government scale up of CMAM programming in Nigeria.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 90)

From the editor

This issue of Field Exchange comes out in the wake of the Haiti emergency. Although the relief effort is continuing, the acute phase of the emergency is arguably over at the time of writing, with humanitarian efforts now focused on rebuilding infrastructure – especially provision of shelter and homes.

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 2)

From the Editor

A key thematic focus of this issue of Field Exchange is Humanitarian Reform. There have been many reviews and evaluations concerning the level of progress made since the reform process was officially launched some five years ago.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 2)

From the editor

Ethiopia is a diverse country where a significant proportion of the population live on or below the poverty line, where food insecurity is widespread and rates of acute malnutrition are often at or above the international threshold that defines an emergency situation.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 4)

From the editor

The role of data and analytical tools in guiding and evaluating emergency programming figures strongly in this issue of Field Exchange.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 3)

Frontline experiences of Community Infant and Young Child Feeding in Zimbabwe

This article shares the perspective of three individuals in Zimbabwe, directly involved in rollout of community based support to infant and young child feeding (cIYCF). The content was captured in an exchange between the authors during training between 10-14th of October, 2011 in Gokwe North, one of the districts in Zimbabwe. A postscript by Fitsum Assefa (UNICEF Zimbabwe) provides some context to the cIYCF approach in Zimbabwe.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 95)

Funding too concentrated on ‘big three’ diseases

Certain tropical diseases are being unjustly ignored in Africa because funding is so heavily concentrated on the ‘big three’ (HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria), according to a news piece in the BMJ.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 15)

Giving voice to silent emergencies

Summary of editorial.

Issue 16, August 2002 (page 5)

Global CMAM mapping in UNICEF supported countries

Summary of review.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 11)

Global factors shaping food aid

Summary of published paper.

Issue 31, September 2007 (page 8)

Global Trends in Malnutrition

Summary of published paper.

Issue 23, November 2004 (page 5)

Good Humanitarian Donorship Initiative

Published review.

Issue 24, March 2005 (page 10)

Human rights, politics and ethics

Summary of published paper.

Issue 17, November 2002 (page 8)

Humanitarian Accountability Report

The Humanitarian Accountability Partnership (HAP International) has launched the 2008 Humanitarian Accountability Report (May 2009).

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 18)

Humanitarian Assistance in Sudan in 1998

Published paper.

Issue 6, February 1999 (page 9)

Humanitarian financing for older people and people with disabilities

Arecent study quantifies the funding provided by donors to meet the humanitarian needs of two of the most vulnerable groups: older people and people with disabilities. It does so by analysing the amount of humanitarian funding targeted at these two groups through the UN Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) and Flash Appeals in 2010 and 2011.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 16)

Humanitarian Response Index (HRI)

Summary of report.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 18)

IASC Nutrition Cluster: Key Things to Know

The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) have recently produced a ‘Note’ about the Cluster Approach which includes details about the Nutrition Cluster component.

Issue 31, September 2007 (page 17)

Importance of non-DAC donors in humanitarian aid

The bulk of humanitarian financing comes from a set of wealthy industrialised countries, a group best represented by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 11)

Inappropriate Interventions in the Great Lakes

Summary of published research.

Issue 23, November 2004 (page 9)

India, 'the Silent Emergency'

Cynically it is unfortunate that the "hunger " problem in India is not primarily one of mass starvation which would attract international attention but rather one of widespread state of malnutrition which has been so common for years that it leaves the International community indifferent.

Issue 4, June 1998 (page 23)

Industry: unlikely players in emergency food distribution

The destruction brought by the violence of Hurricane Mitch from October 26-27th of l998 has been well documented. No country was harder hit than Honduras, a nation of 5.8 million.

Issue 10, July 2000 (page 19)

infoasaid: communication in emergencies

When an emergency strikes, be it natural disaster or man-made, organisations working on the ground, together with the national authorities, rush to respond.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 50)

Initiatives to improve training on nutrition in emergencies

A new Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN) initiative to improve the capacity to respond to nutritional emergencies by strengthening professional training has recently received funding from the US Office for Disaster Assistance (OFDA).

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 23)

Institutional development in Ethiopia: supporting an improved emergency response

Planned institutional development can be fraught with difficulties and diverted by internal and external political agendas.

Issue 15, April 2002 (page 16)

Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition (IMAM) scale up: Lessons from Somalia operations

Somalia has been in a state of armed conflict since 1988, and has been without an effective government since the fall of Siad Barre in 1991, representing the longest case of state collapse in modern times.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 28)

Integrated management of acute malnutrition in Kenya including urban settings

Kenya has a population of 38.7 million people, of which 5,939,308 are children under five (U5) years of age. The country is divided into eight provinces: Coast, Eastern, Central, North Eastern, Rift Valley, Nyanza, Western and Nairobi.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 78)

Integrating anaemia analysis in SMART surveys in Bolivia

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Issue 44, December 2012 (page 36)

Integrating OTP into routine health services CONCERN’s experiences

This article describes the history of an international non-governmental organisation (INGO)-implemented programme that evolved from an innovative emergency intervention into a longer-term initiative, to support the Ministry of Health (MoH) to integrate treatment services for Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) within the routine health system.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 69)

Inter-Agency Appeals and Needs Assessments

Summary of published report.

Issue 21, March 2004 (page 10)

Inter-Agency Workshop on Food Security Assessments in Emergencies: Amsterdam, 2-3 December 1997

On the 2nd and 3rd of December 1997 MSF Holland organised a workshop on food security assessments in emergencies.

Issue 4, June 1998 (page 16)

Interpreting mortality data in emergencies

The Humanitarian Practice Network (HPN) have published a network paper on ‘interpreting and using mortality data in humanitarian emergencies – a primer for non-epidemiologists’.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 9)

Investing in Nutrition to Reduce Poverty

Summary of published research.

Issue 22, July 2004 (page 7)

Is food aid effective?

Summary of published research.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 8)

Joint Emergency Operation Plan NGO response to emergency food needs in Ethiopia

Emergency food relief continues to be a recurrent need in Ethiopia since the Ethiopian famine of the 1980s, which was so severe that it demanded global attention and response. Institutional donors and non-governmental organisations (NGO) have been responding with emergency food relief during crisis years for decades to alleviate hunger.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 66)

Kosovo Evaluation

During 1998 and early 1999 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbian) forces increased their efforts to ‘ethnically cleanse’ Kosovo.

Issue 11, December 2000 (page 24)

Learning about Exit Strategies in Southern Africa

The topic of ‘Exit Strategies’ confounds and eludes emergency and development practitioners alike.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 32)

Lessons From SC UK Evaluation in DRC

Save the Children UK (SC UK) began implementing emergency health and nutrition interventions in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1998, with initial activities in North and South Kivu and North Katanga.

Issue 22, July 2004 (page 22)

Lessons Learned From Complex Emergencies

Published paper.

Issue 24, March 2005 (page 7)

Letter on inadequate coverage of SAM in Lancet Undernutrition Series, by Susan Shepherd

Letter.

Issue 33, June 2008 (page 24)

Linking PSNP and NNP: experiences and challenges

Summary of report.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 88)

Linking relief and development programming in Wajir, Kenya (Special Supplement 3)

In the early to mid-1990s, Oxfam developed a one programme approach that combined relief, development and advocacy.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 59)

Links between needs assessment and decisions in food crisis responses

Summary of published review.

Issue 33, June 2008 (page 10)

Little investment in nutrition by Gates Foundation

Summary of editorial.

Issue 37, November 2009 (page 22)

Management and co-ordination problems of refugee programmes in Kigoma - A familiar tale?

The upsurge of violence in Eastern Zaire towards the end of 1996 led to an influx of Zairian refugees into the Kigoma area of Tanzania.

Issue 1, May 1997 (page 20)

Management of acute malnutrition in Niger: a countrywide programme

Niger is a land-locked Sahelian country with a population of over 15 million people, of which approximately 50 per cent are children under 15 years of age. Niger ranks 173rd out of 177 countries according to the 2010 UNDP1 Human Development Index.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 52)

Managing severe acute malnutrition in India: prospects and Challenges

This article is based on a case study and presentation delivered by Biraj Patnaik for the Addis Ababa Conference on CMAM scale up in November 2011. He describes the scale of nutritional problems in India, current institutional mechanisms, and challenges in addressing the SAM burden in particular. Jamie Lee and Bernadette Feeney (Valid International) were invited by the India delegation to describe a number of developments in India since the conference around CMAM that are shared in a postscript.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 85)

Minimum standards in post-emergency phase

Summary of online published paper.

Issue 18, March 2003 (page 9)

National training on IFE in Sri Lanka

This piece summarises an IFE training led by country delegates as an action arising from the regional IFE workshop held in Bali 10-13th March 2008.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 22)

Needs Assessment and Decision Making in Emergencies

Summary of published report.

Issue 21, March 2004 (page 8)

Neo-Colonialism and ‘Otherness’: Representational Issues in Field Exchange

This brief review of photographs carried in Field Exchange was prompted by a criticism levelled at the publication in 2004 ‘that the gallery of pictures accompanying the articles and those presented at the end of each issue is testimony to “neo-colonialism” (Renzaho A, Issue 23, p17). As well as commenting on previous issues, the author makes some recommendations on images that should be considered by both ENN editors and those in the field.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 8)

New Sphere Standards for Food Security, Nutrition and Food Aid

Summary of published paper.

Issue 23, November 2004 (page 8)

NGOs and the private sector

Summary of unpublished report.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 12)

Nutrition assessments in Zimbabwe: a local perspective

Following deterioration in the food security situation in Zimbabwe at the end of 2001, by December 2002, a number of emergency assessments had been carried out in the country.

Issue 18, March 2003 (page 31)

Nutrition coordination in Zimbabwe: Achievements and Challenges

Over the past several years, Zimbabwe has experienced political and economic upheaval resulting in rampant inflation, drought, unemployment, food shortages and general deterioration across multiple sectors.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 3)

Nutrition in Consolidated Appeals Process – a review

In late 2008, the Global Nutrition Cluster commissioned a review of ‘How Nutrition is Framed in the Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP)’ by Tufts University.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 18)

Nutrition in the DPRK - a field view

This article, provides an 'experience based' sequel to Field Exchange's analysis of the DPRK crisis (see issue 3). It casts doubt on claims of widespread malnutrition, focuses on the appalling state of care available to chronically malnourished children, and highlights the considerable operational difficulties in running nutritional programmes in DPRK.

Issue 5, October 1998 (page 21)

Nutrition research in emergencies

Summary of meeting.

Issue 21, March 2004 (page 20)

Nutritional surveys in Iraq: a call for improved quality

Summary of published paper.

Issue 13, August 2001 (page 7)

Operational research in low-income countries: what, why, and how?

Summary of research.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 19)

Oxfam evaluation of Cyclone Sidr response

Summary of evaluation.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 30)

Participation by the Affected Population in Relief Operations

Draft report for ALNAP.

Issue 7, July 1999 (page 24)

Personal experiences of working during the Horn Africa crisis in 2011

The following is based on a face to face interview conducted by Carmel Dolan (ENN) with Mélody Tondeur and Sarah Style, two team members of an ENN technical assistance project to UNHCR , who oversaw surveys in Dadaab camps in Kenya during the height of the crisis in 2011. It describes their personal experiences in carrying out the surveys and their views on approaching large scale emergency refugee situations. Both Mélody and Sarah now work with UNHCR.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 44)

Philippine Nutrition Cluster’s battle for the best: the breast

The Philippines lies along the typhoon belt of the Western Pacific, making it prone to various hydro-meteorological hazards.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 38)

Postscript to 'Outbreak of micronutrient deficiency disease'. By Emma Naylor, Oxfam GB

WFP Kenya would like to address some of the points made in the article entitled, “Outbreak of micronutrient deficiency disease: Did we respond appropriately?” by Dianne Stevens et al. of Save the Children (UK).

Issue 12, April 2001 (page 18)

Priority indicators in humanitarian emergencies

Summary of reports.

Issue 37, November 2009 (page 12)

Prise en charge de la malnutrition aiguë au Niger : Un programme national (français)

Le Niger est un pays enclavé du Sahel, avec une population de plus de 15 millions de personnes, dont environ 50% sont des enfants de moins de 15 ans. Le Niger se classe au 173e rang sur 177 selon l’Indice de développement humain du PNUD 2010.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 52)

Protecting production in Africa’s forgotten war

Still bearing the brunt of a 30-year civil war, millions of Angolans are facing severe food and fuel shortages, artillery attacks on many of the main cities, and the terror of being caught between two warring forces.

Issue 8, November 1999 (page 5)

Public financing of health in developing countries

Summary of published research.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 23)

Real time evaluation of Pakistan Flood Response

Summary of evaluation.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 26)

Responding to the crisis in Congo-Zaire: emergency Feeding of Rwandan Refugees May-July 1997

In response to the extreme humanitarian crisis amongst Rwandan refugees remaining in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo; DRC), CARE implemented and co-ordinated emergency food distribution programmes in Kisangani and Lulingu (Shabunda zone) from May to September 1997.

Issue 3, January 1998 (page 12)

Responding to the crisis in Congo-Zaire: emergency feeding of Rwandan refugees, May-July 1997

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Issue 3, January 1998 (page 22)

Review of integrated nutrition programming by ACF International

Summary of review.

Issue 37, November 2009 (page 30)

Review of NGO engagement with the humanitarian reform process

Summary of report.

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 8)

Review of Published Evidence for Impact of Emergency Feeding Programmes

Summary of unpublished paper.

Issue 24, March 2005 (page 11)

Review of tools developed by the Global Nutrition Cluster

Summary of review.

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 9)

Revised Memorandum of Understanding - WFP and UNHCR

In 1985 UNHCR and WFP formally attempted to clarify their roles and responsibilities by drawing up a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).

Issue 1, May 1997 (page 14)

Revised Sphere guidelines

The Sphere handbook 2000 edition has been revised over the last year. There have been consultations in many countries in an attempt to capture people's experience and views and build consensus on minimum standards, indicators and guidance notes.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 20)

Revisiting Sphere: new standards of service delivery for new trends in protracted displacement

Summary of research.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 18)

SC UK’s experiences with Central Emergency Response Funds (CERF)

Summary of evaluation report.

Issue 33, June 2008 (page 29)

Scaling up CMAM in the wake of 2010 floods in Pakistan

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world (>180 million in 2011), the second largest Muslim population after Indonesia and has wide diversity in terms of culture, ethnicity, language, geography and climate. Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 67)

School of Nursing and Midwifery & Pre-Service Training on Nutrition, Hawassa University, Ethiopia

Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries in the world. According to the Government’s Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2000-2003), over 45% of the population lives below the poverty line.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 56)

Shabunda: the ‘forgotten Kosovo’

Summary of article.

Issue 16, August 2002 (page 5)

Shared experiences of Southern Africa crisis

Summary of meeting.

Issue 18, March 2003 (page 16)

Somali Region Ethiopia

Summary of situation report.

Issue 11, December 2000 (page 25)

Sphere revision underway

The Sphere project was launched in 1997 as a joint initiative of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to improve quality and accountability in humanitarian response.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 27)

Sphere standards in Bangladesh flood response

Summary of research.

Issue 18, March 2003 (page 3)

Suggested New Design Framework for CMAM Programming

The last fifteen years have seen unprecedented progress in the field of management of severe acute malnutrition (MSAM).

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 42)

Summary of Lancet Series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition

Below are short summaries of the recently launched Lancet series of papers on Maternal and Child Undernutrition.

Issue 33, June 2008 (page 12)

Task Force Review

Summary of a Report by SPLM/SRRA–OLS.

Issue 6, February 1999 (page 28)

The application of minimum standards during crisis - A practitioner ’s perspective, southern Sudan 1998/9

The Sphere Project was launched in 1997 to develop a set of universal minimum standards in core areas of humanitarian assistance.

Issue 11, December 2000 (page 15)

The Changing Role of Aid Policy in Protracted Crises

Published paper.

Issue 24, March 2005 (page 9)

The Emergency Nutrition Coordination Unit of Ethiopia roles, responsibilities and achievements

The history of the Emergency Nutrition Coordination Unit (ENCU) can be divided into two five-year phases: Phase One, the inception phase (2000- 2005) and Phase Two, the expansion phase (2005-2010).

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 33)

The Evolution of Ethiopian Government’s Early Warning System

Disaster Management structures and systems have a relatively short history in Ethiopia having evolved after the ‘great famine’ of 1973/74 when the first government institution, the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission (RRC) was created.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 65)

The Future of Food Aid

Development food aid in the 1990s has proven relatively ineffective as a way of combating poverty and increasing food consumption according to a new study.

Issue 5, October 1998 (page 14)

The Haiti Earthquake - Country and Global level Cluster Coordination Experiences and Lessons Learnt

This article describes the experiences of the Nutrition Cluster in response to the Haiti earthquake which struck in January 2010. The article aims to capture what the cluster did well and what it did not do so well in the first month of the response and to highlight key lessons for future Nutrition Cluster Coordination and for UNICEF as the cluster lead agency.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 2)

The Humanitarian Response Index

Summary of published news.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 15)

The need for nutrition research in emergencies

Summary of published paper.

Issue 17, November 2002 (page 9)

The Need to Improve Administration in Ethical Organisations

Acentral goal for every ethical organisation is to focus on maximising the impact of its programmes. However, very few have acknowledged the relationship between this goal and the quality of the organisation’s administration systems and procedures.

Issue 30, April 2007 (page 17)

The new role of Nigerien medical NGOs in treating SAM

Niger has been affected by a persistent nutritional crisis, as documented over the past five years, with rates of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) consistently above critical thresholds. Child and infant mortality remains extremely high at 160 per 1,000 persons.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 59)

The Nutrition Situation of Refugees and Displaced Persons

The quarterly 'Reports on the Nutrition Situation of Refugees and Displaced Populations' (RNIS) are compiled and published by the ACC/Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN) based in Geneva.

Issue 2, August 1997 (page 13)

The reality of research in emergencies

Having spent the last few years working as a field nutritionist with an NGO and with a background in paediatric dietetics, the opportunity to carry out some infant feeding research was my picture of the perfect job.

Issue 9, March 2000 (page 12)

The state of the humanitarian system

A recent report by ALNAP presents a system-level mapping and analysis of the performance of international humanitarian assistance between 2009 and 2011 building on an earlier pilot report published covering 2007 and 2008.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 32)

The use of evidence in humanitarian decision making

Summary of study.

Issue 45, May 2013 (page 9)

Therapeutic Feeding: Imported Versus Local Foods

Steve Collins recently drew attention to a situation in Haiti where the only food being used (i.e.,F100) in the treatment of severe malnutrition became unavailable. Health staff subsequently adopted dangerous treatment approaches (i.e., dextrose-saline drips) which resulted in higher mortality rates (>70%) amongst kwashiorkor patients.

Issue 4, June 1998 (page 30)

Thin on the Ground

Questioning the evidence behind World Bank-funded community nutrition projects in Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda, key findings of the Save the Children UK report, Thin on the Ground, were presented at the UN Standing Committee on Nutrition meeting in Chennai, India in March 2003.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 6)

Towards better documentation of mortality in crises

Summary of research.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 11)

Towards the Overdue Elimination of Deficiency Disease Epidemics

Nutritional deficiency epidemics are all highly predictable. Softwares are now available to flag nutrients missing in a ration, making epidemic prediction easy. Indeed, there is no excuse for being taken by surprise by a deficiency disease epidemic.

Issue 21, March 2004 (page 14)

Transforming awareness and training into effective CMAM Performance

In February 2011, Action Against Hunger ACF International (ACF) began supporting a sustainable approach to integration of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) in three Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Yobe State, Nigeria.

Issue 45, May 2013 (page 43)

Treatment of severe malnutrition now a core competency in health

Paediatricians took a giant step forward at the International Paediatric Association (IPA) Congress in Johannesburg in August 2010 when they resolved that treatment of malnutrition should become a core competency. It also had the support of the WHO, UNICEF and other United Nations agencies.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 80)

Triggers, Early Warning and Response in FFP Assistance

Summary of research.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 11)

UNICEF’s perspective on cluster coordination and programme response in Haiti 2010

This postscript is a consolidated response by Nutrition cluster coordination team and UNICEF Nutrition programme staff involved in the Haiti humanitarian response, to some of the issues raised in the field article.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 8)

USAID in public-private alliance initiative

Summary of published research.

Issue 28, July 2006 (page 9)

Value chain approach to increase production of RUTF/CSB

In Ethiopia, 13.7 million people face chronic food insecurity. Out of this figure, the number of people who needed emergency food aid reached about 6.2 million in June 2009. An additional 7.5 million received aid in return for work on community projects as a part of the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP).

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 79)

Viability of an ENN research initiative

Summary of pilot study findings.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 8)

Voices from the field: Optimising performance for humanitarian workers

A recent study set out to understand how humanitarian workers remain effective in challenging environments while also maintaining personal life balance.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 14)

What Triggers Humanitarian Intervention?

Summary of published paper.

Issue 20, November 2003 (page 7)

When is a Famine a Humanitarian Crisis?

All available evidence suggests that the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) is suffering, to use the word in the older sense of generalised dearth, a famine; and there is every reason to believe that some people in North Korea have access to less food of a lower quality than they require. .

Issue 3, January 1998 (page 22)

When is a system not a system? Challenges to improved humanitarian action in food crises

Summary of symposium presentation.

Issue 16, August 2002 (page 16)

Why is undernutrition not a higher priority for donors?

Summary of research.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 10)

WTO Negotiations on Improving Food Aid

This article details current negotiations in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) on improving the effectiveness and efficiency of food aid, based on research undertaken by Oxfam GB.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 22)