Category: Infant and young child feeding in emergencies (IFE)

Acceptable medical reasons for using breastmilk substitutes

WHO/UNICEF have updated their guidance on acceptable medical reasons for use of breastmilk substitutes (BMS) based on new scientific evidence.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 15)

Action to improve infant and young child feeding in nutrition and child health programmes

Proceedings of meeting.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 16)

Adequacy of Replacement Milks for Infants of HIV-Infected Mothers

Summary of published research.

Issue 22, July 2004 (page 5)

Appropriateness of Replacement Milks in South Africa

Summary of published paper.

Issue 23, November 2004 (page 5)

Assessing the intervention on infant feeding in Gaza 2008

The two field articles that follow share different experiences of working in Gaza during the 2008/09 conflict. Both deal with the area of infant and young child feeding especially.

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 24)

Breastfeeding and Mortality in Emergencies

Summary of published paper.

Issue 21, March 2004 (page 5)

Breastfeeding Support Groups in Tajikistan

This field article describes Action Against Hunger’s experiences with Breastfeeding Support Groups in Tajikistan.

Issue 30, April 2007 (page 11)

Breastfeeding support in the refugee camps of North Western Tanzania

This article describes UNHCR’s experiences of supporting breastfeeding in a refugee camp setting, and how the ‘breastfeeding corners’ initially established evolved into community based support approach.

Issue 31, September 2007 (page 32)

Caring for premature babies in a conflict zone

Summary of published experiences.

Issue 31, September 2007 (page 6)

Challenges of dealing with unsolicited donations during emergencies

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) experienced very heavy rainfall that caused severe floods in six provinces of the country during August 2007.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 42)

Childhood Malnutrition and the Dinka of Southern Sudan

This article is a summary of a report commissioned by the international humanitarian organisation, World Vision, to investigate the impact of social and cultural factors on childhood malnutrition amongst the Dinka of Tonj South County, Warrap State, Southern Sudan.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 7)

cIYCF in Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe has a high prevalence of stunting (32%) and low prevalence of wasting/acute malnutrition (3%) (DHS 2011).

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 97)

Comment on: Including infants in nutrition surveys

Perinatal mortality and birth-weight reflect the quality of the intrauterine environment and complications of birth.

Issue 9, March 2000 (page 16)

Comment on: Putting IFE guidance into practice: operational challenges in Myanmar

As reflected in the field article by Save the Children, there were many elements to coordinating a response on infant and young child feeding (IFE) during cyclone Nargis.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 34)

Cotrimoxazole as a Prophylaxis for HIV Positive Malnourished Children

Summary of review.

Issue 25, May 2005 (page 13)

Counselling on infant feeding choice: Some practical realities from South Africa

Avoiding transmission of HIV from mother to child after birth has become one of the greatest challenges in HIV prevention.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 27)

Diarrhoea risk associated with not breastfeeding in Botswana

Summary of report and presentation.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 23)

Diet and renal function in malnutrition

Summary of presentation.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 24)

Diluted F100 v infant formula in treatment of severely malnourished infants < 6 months

This article reports the main findings of a study which aimed to address one of the ongoing debates concerning the treatment of infants <6m - which supplemental milk is the most appropriate to use in their treatment?.

Issue 37, November 2009 (page 18)

Early Exclusive Breastfeeding Increases HIV Survival

Summary of published paper.

Issue 25, May 2005 (page 9)

Early initiation of breastfeeding reduces neonatal mortality

Summary of published research.

Issue 28, July 2006 (page 6)

Effect of Breastfeeding and Formula Feeding on Transmission of HIV-1

Summary of published clinical trial.

Issue 11, December 2000 (page 3)

ENN led Management of Acute Malnutrition in Infants (MAMI) Project

Funded by the UNICEF led Interagency Standing Committee (IASC) Nutrition Cluster, the ENN is planning a review in 2008 of the field management of acutely malnourished infants under six months of age.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 21)

ENN/GIFA project

Summary of presentation.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 28)

Evaluation of regional IFE workshop

Summary of evaluation report.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 23)

Evaluation of Relactation by the Supplemental Suckling Technique

This article describes ACFs experiences of managing malnourished infants under six months in an inpatient setting in a challenging environment, which leads them to raise key questions about managing this age-group.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 30)

Evaluation of use of IFE training materials

An evaluation was recently conducted of two training modules (Module 1 and 2) on Infant Feeding in Emergencies (IFE) developed by the IFE Core Group (UNICEF, WHO, WFP, UNHCR, IBFAN-GIFA, CARE USA, Fondation Terre des hommes and ENN) and produced by the ENN.

Issue 28, July 2006 (page 21)

Exclusive breastfeeding promotion by peer counsellors in sub-Saharan Africa

Summary of published research.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 16)

FAO/WHO Meeting Warn of Contaminated Infant Formula

People caring for infants at high risk of infection should be warned that powdered infant formula is not a sterile product, a joint Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) and World Health Organisation (WHO) meeting has concluded, and recently highlighted in a BMJ news piece.

Issue 22, July 2004 (page 19)

Feeding in emergencies for infants under six months: Practical Guidelines

The stated aim of these guidelines is to inform Oxfam health personnel about the problems of feeding infants under six months old in emergencies and to provide some practical guidance on ways of overcoming these problems.

Issue 1, May 1997 (page 5)

Focus on the Code and infant feeding in emergencies

Learn about specific issues regarding the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in emergencies through FOCUS on the Code and infant feeding in emergencies.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 17)

From the editor

This issue of Field Exchange comes out in the wake of the Haiti emergency. Although the relief effort is continuing, the acute phase of the emergency is arguably over at the time of writing, with humanitarian efforts now focused on rebuilding infrastructure – especially provision of shelter and homes.

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 2)

Frontline experiences of Community Infant and Young Child Feeding in Zimbabwe

This article shares the perspective of three individuals in Zimbabwe, directly involved in rollout of community based support to infant and young child feeding (cIYCF). The content was captured in an exchange between the authors during training between 10-14th of October, 2011 in Gokwe North, one of the districts in Zimbabwe. A postscript by Fitsum Assefa (UNICEF Zimbabwe) provides some context to the cIYCF approach in Zimbabwe.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 95)

Full MAMI report now available

The full report of the Management of Acute Malnutrition in Infants<6 months (MAMI) Project – MAMI Project. Technical Review: Current evidence, policies, practices & programme outcomes – is now available electronically or on CD.

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 20)

Guiding Principles for Infant Feeding in Emergencies

This draft document from the World Health is intended to set out principles which can be used to guide programme implementation.

Issue 3, January 1998 (page 17)

HIV-Positive Mothers in Uganda Return to Breastfeeding

Summary of published research.

Issue 20, November 2003 (page 15)

How to assess and respond to Iraqi refugee needs in Syria

This article shares the challenges of conducting a survey of the health, nutrition and livelihood conditions of Iraqi Refugees living amongst the local population in the North East of Syria.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 26)

Including infants in nutrition surveys

Guidelines on nutritional survey methodologies currently stipulate that children between 6 to 59 months should be surveyed.

Issue 9, March 2000 (page 15)

Increased diarrhoea following infant formula distribution in 2006 earthquake response in Indonesia: evidence and actions

Natural disasters are common in Indonesia. While still recovering from a series of such events, a severe earthquake struck Yogyakarta and Central Java provinces during the morning hours of May 27, 2006.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 30)

Infant Feeding Alternatives for HIV Positive Mothers in Kenya

The HIV pandemic sweeping southern Africa and other parts of sub- Saharan Africa is increasingly being perceived and described as a chronic emergency.

Issue 22, July 2004 (page 26)

Infant feeding and HIV transmission

Summary of Published paper.

Issue 8, November 1999 (page 7)

Infant feeding in a TFP

MSc Thesis.

Issue 9, March 2000 (page 7)

Infant Feeding in Bosnia

The comments in the letter to the editors (Field Exchange, issue 2) on the article "Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Experience from Former Yugoslavia" saddened me a little.

Issue 3, January 1998 (page 20)

Infant Feeding in Emergencies - the challenges

To the uninitiated, Infant Feeding in Emergencies (IFE) may seem like a pretty innocuous topic which gets a lot of media coverage when crises occur. .

Issue 1, May 1997 (page 3)

Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Experiences from Former Yugoslavia

War in the former Yugoslavia presented a relatively new situation to the international aid community whose prior emergency experience had mostly been in less developed countries.

Issue 1, May 1997 (page 3)

Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Experiences from Indonesia and Lebanon

On the 27th May 2006 a strong earthquake had a devastating impact on two provinces on Java Island in Indonesia killing 5,778 people. Major infrastructural damage left 3.2 million people affected.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 3)

Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Experiences from Rwanda

Between October and December last year escalating civil conflict led to hundreds of thousands of Hutu refugees returning from refugee camps in eastern Zaire to Rwanda.

Issue 1, May 1997 (page 4)

Infant Feeding in Emergencies: IFE Core Group Meeting

ACore Group of agencies and experts have been working together for a number of years to develop a training manual on infant feeding for emergency field workers.

Issue 23, November 2004 (page 14)

Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Recurring Challenges

Published Report.

Issue 10, July 2000 (page 5)

Infant feeding in the South Asia earthquake aftermath

This article describes the infant feeding situation and the initial interventions to protect, promote and support appropriate infant feeding practices during the relief efforts in Pakistan following the 8 October 2005 earthquake.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 3)

Infant feeding in tsunami affected villages in India

Summary of published research.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 10)

Infant Feeding Patterns and Risk of Death

Summary of published paper.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 7)

Infant Feeding Practices: Observations from Macedonia and Kosovo

As a result of concerns expressed about the usage of infant formula and a need for more information regarding weaning practices during and after the conflict in Kosovo, Action Against Hunger-UK began to examine infant feeding practices in the area and found that some aspects of infant feeding were extremely poor.

Issue 8, November 1999 (page 27)

Infant feeding strategies and PMTCT - Mashi trial from Botswana

Summary of published research.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 26)

Infant feeding: policies and guidelines

Summary of a review.

Issue 14, November 2001 (page 7)

Infant Formula Distribution in Northern Iraq

Summary of assessment.

Issue 20, November 2003 (page 6)

Integrated PMTCT Services in a Rural Setting in Malawi

This article is based on interviews by Mary Corbett with Matron Hilda Kamera and Dr Athnase Kiromera, and a project visit by Mary, accompanied by Gertrude Kara, WFP.

Issue 25, May 2005 (page 19)

Integrating Infant and Young Child Feeding and the Productive Safety Net Programme in Ethiopia

Concern Worldwide has worked in Ethiopia since 1973, primarily in the areas of health and nutrition, livelihoods, and HIV and AIDS. Two years ago, Concern documented the poor nutritional situation in Dessie Zuria Woreda and the multiple obstacles hampering previous efforts to improve the Situation.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 61)

Integration of IYCF into CMAM – new training content

A training content 'Integration of IYCF (infant and young child feeding) support into CMAM (community based managment of acute malnutrition)' is now available.

Issue 37, November 2009 (page 25)

Letter asking for guidance on BMS for orphans in Rwanda, by Ros O'Loughlin (and response by ENN)

I read with great interest the articles on infant feeding in the first issue of Field Exchange. I was at the time working in a centre for unaccompanied Rwandan refugee children in Kisangani, Zaire (now Stanleyville, Democratic Republic of Congo). .

Issue 2, August 1997 (page 9)

Letter on breastmilk substitute marketing, by Gay Palmer.

André Briend has made an error in his valuable article on elimination of deficiency disease epidemics (FE 21 March 2004). .

Issue 23, November 2004 (page 16)

Letter on cup feeding infants, by Mike Golden


Issue 1, May 1997 (page 16)

Letter on infant feeding in Former Yugoslavia, by Fiona Watson, Aileen Robertson and Aida Filipovic

We would like to comment on the article "Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Experience from Former Yugoslavia" (Field Exchange, Issue 1, May '97). .

Issue 2, August 1997 (page 8)

Letter on relevance of IFE guidelines in developed countries, by Sarah Saunby

Letter from the Sheffi eld Area Contact, Baby Milk Action & BfN Registered Breastfeeding Supporter, UK.

Issue 31, September 2007 (page 20)

Making Sense of the Code: new training materials

New training materials.

Issue 30, April 2007 (page 13)

MAMI Project – Call to share experiences

Provision of guidance on the management of malnutrition in infants under six months of age is severely hampered by a poor evidence base upon which to base materials.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 38)

MAMI-2 research prioritization – call for collaborators

In January 2010, the report of ‘The Management of Acute Malnutrition in Infants aged <6 months’ (the MAMI project) was released.

Issue 43, July 2012 (page 63)

Maternal depression and infant growth – review of recent evidence

recent paper reviews the research over the last 10 years investigating whether there is an association between maternal depression and infant growth impairment.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 36)

Maternal micronutrient status and decreased infant growth

Summary of published research.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 12)

Minimising the risks of artificial feeding in emergencies


Issue 29, December 2006 (page 10)

Monitoring the international code in west Africa

A paper and recently summarised editorial.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 10)

National training on IFE in Sri Lanka

This piece summarises an IFE training led by country delegates as an action arising from the regional IFE workshop held in Bali 10-13th March 2008.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 22)

New CD of IFE Training Materials

A CD-Rom of training materials on Infant Feeding in Emergencies is now available from ENN.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 20)

Orientation workshop on IFE

The IFE Core Group1 is planning an orientation workshop on infant and young childfeeding in emergencies (IFE) scheduled for 1- 2 November 2006 in Oxford.

Issue 28, July 2006 (page 15)

Philippine Nutrition Cluster’s battle for the best: the breast

The Philippines lies along the typhoon belt of the Western Pacific, making it prone to various hydro-meteorological hazards.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 38)

Planned study on feasibility and efficacy of IYCF in CMAM integration in Ethiopia

The Alive and Thrive Project1 is supporting a two-year, field-based study on the integration of Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) into Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) in Ethiopia.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 31)

Postscript to 'Fresh food vouchers for refugees in Kenya'

During the period 2006 through the present, CARE, UNHCR, GTZ, IRC, NCCK and other partners have worked in an interagency collaboration (the Dadaab IYCF Team) to provide support for improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in the Dadaab Camps.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 23)

Postscript to 'Infant feeding in the South Asia earthquake aftermath'

Maaike’s observations concur with many of our experiences around infant feeding in emergencies (IFE) in previous humanitarian interventions.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 5)

Postscript to 'Infant feeding in tsunami affected villages in India'


Issue 29, December 2006 (page 10)

Practical experiences and lessons learned in using supplemental suckling technique

Following on from the article on infant feeding in emergencies, which appeared in the March 2000 issue of Field Exchange, we wish to add our thoughts on the use of the supplemental suckling technique, drawing on our experience from the therapeutic feeding centre in Kabaya district hospital, in Gisenyi, Rwanda, which Save the Children (UK) was supporting.

Issue 13, August 2001 (page 23)

Proceedings of UNICEF/GNC/SC UK workshop on IYCF in development and emergencies

The report is now available of a 5 day workshop on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in development and in emergencies (IYCF-E) held from 25th-29th June, 2012 in London. The workshop was organised by Save the Children UK, funded and in partnership with UNICEF (IYCF and Emergency Units) and the Global Nutrition Cluster (GNC).

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 43)

Putting IFE guidance into practice: operational challenges in Myanmar

This article outlines the challenges in implementing a response on infant and young child feeding at scale in Myanmar in 2008. It draws upon a review by Save the Children UK on the Save the Children Alliance ‘IFE response’ to cyclone Nargis.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 31)

Qualitative study of supplementary suckling as a treatment for SAM in Infants

The focus of most acute malnutrition research and programming to date has been on the management of children aged 6 to 59 months; this is slowly changing. A recent study estimated that of 20 million children under 5 years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) worldwide, 3.8 million are infants under 6 months (infants <6m)2, dispelling a common misconception that malnutrition in this age group is Rare.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 22)

Regional IFE workshop in Bali

Summary of meeting.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 37)

Review of indicators to assess Infant Feeding in Emergencies

Summary of research.

Issue 18, March 2003 (page 6)

Review of Operational Guidance on IFE

In 2001, an Operational Guidance on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies was developed by an Interagency Working Group, supported by 30 INGOs/ NGOs/UN agencies.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 19)

Revised Operational Guidance on IFE

An updated version of the Operational Guidance for Emergency Relief Staff and Programme Managers on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies is now available from the ENN.

Issue 28, July 2006 (page 14)

Safe infant feeding remains a challenge: the Balkans experience

Summary of published paper.

Issue 14, November 2001 (page 3)

Save the Children’s IYCF programme and linkages to Protection, Food Security and Livelihoods in Haiti

The Haiti earthquake of January 12th 2010 made headline news worldwide given the extent of damage and of loss of life, as well as the profound impact on already vulnerable children and families. While the exact number of deaths and injuries caused by the earthquake may never be known, the Government estimates that 222,750 people (2% of the population) were killed and 300,572 were injured.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 65)

SCF Statement to the WHA on Infant Feeding

Commendable progress has been made since 1981 in the implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, which aims to protect infant health from the inappropriate promotion of breastmilk substitutes.

Issue 4, June 1998 (page 18)

Social context of child care practices and nutrition in Niger

Summary of published research.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 9)

Somali KAP Study on Infant and Young Child Feeding and Health Seeking Practices

Since the collapse of the Somali Central Government in 1991, the country has faced a series of disasters, both natural (floods and droughts) and man-made (poor governance, armed conflict, and collapse of institution/infrastructure).

Issue 33, June 2008 (page 7)

Strategy Meeting on Infant Feeding in Emergencies

Summary of international meeting.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 35)

Support the Operational Guidance on IFE

During a recent strategy meeting on IFE in Oxford, fifteen agencies/institutions signed up to support the updated Operational Guidance on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 37)

The Code and the Operational Guidance

The aim of the International Code of the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is to protect and promote breastfeeding, and to ensure the proper use of breastmilk substitutes, when they are necessary, on the basis of adequate information and through appropriate marketing and distribution.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 3)

The Haiti Earthquake - Country and Global level Cluster Coordination Experiences and Lessons Learnt

This article describes the experiences of the Nutrition Cluster in response to the Haiti earthquake which struck in January 2010. The article aims to capture what the cluster did well and what it did not do so well in the first month of the response and to highlight key lessons for future Nutrition Cluster Coordination and for UNICEF as the cluster lead agency.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 2)

The MAMI Project – Key findings and recommendations

Summary of report.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 20)

Training and workshop to integrate IYCF in CMAM

Summary of report.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 82)

UNHCR guidance on infant feeding and HIV

UNHCR has recently released a brief guidance on infant feeding and HIV in the context of refugees and displaced populations.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 38)

Using IMRs to inform policy decisions on infant feeding and HIV

Summary of published research.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 10)

Weighing scales for young infants: a survey of relief workers

Infants under 6 months are particularly vulnerable in emergencies, usually as a result of inappropriate feeding practices. Interventions to prevent and treat infant malnutrition in emergencies depend on an accurate assessment of infant nutritional status and a prerequisite to weighing is an effective set of weighing scales.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 12)

Wet nursing for refugee orphans in Bangladesh

This article shares the practical realities of identifying wet nurses for young orphans where artificial feeding was not considered an acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe option.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 26)

What is complementary feeding?

Summary of discussion paper.

Issue 37, November 2009 (page 22)

WHO Guiding Principles on Feeding Non-Breastfed Infants

WHO has just issued a booklet, Guiding principles for feeding non-breastfed infants, 6-24 months of age, which provides health workers with a grounding in the principles involved in designing and safely feeding diets to young non-breastfed infants.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 21)