Category: Livelihoods programming

A boy’s story from Swaziland

Like all sub-Saharan countries, the adverse effects of HIV/AIDS are undermining the future social and economic success in Swaziland.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 21)

A cash for work programme in Uganda

Summary of a mid-term review.

Issue 13, August 2001 (page 21)

A food-based strategy to improve nutrition in emergencies

Since February 2000 the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) has been implementing a project to improve household food security through home gardening and nutrition education in southern Somalia.

Issue 13, August 2001 (page 24)

A Market Support Programme to Address an Urban Food Crisis in Zimbabwe

It is extremely difficult to address urban food emergencies through traditional general ration programmes. The logistic and targeting challenges are particularly daunting. The market support programme described in this article demonstrates an alternative type of intervention which circumvents many of these difficulties. This type of programme may also be suited to certain rural contexts and may offer a model for future programming (Ed).

Issue 23, November 2004 (page 3)

A role for capital markets in natural disasters

Summary of a published Paper.

Issue 11, December 2000 (page 7)

Access to markets and services (Special Supplement 3)

In emergencies, access to markets may be lost for a number of reasons. Since most people live in a cash economy, restoring and maintaining adequate access to markets is important as part of an emergency response.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 36)

Adapting to climate change

Summary of published paper.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 9)

Agricultural interventions to improve nutritional status of children

A summary of a recent systematic review on the effectiveness of agricultural interventions that aim to improve nutritional status of children has recently been published. In order to be included in the review, studies had to investigate agricultural interventions with the explicit goal of improving the nutritional status of children. Interventions included were bio-fortification, home-gardening, aquaculture, small scale fisheries, poultry development, animal husbandry and dairy development.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 31)

An analysis of Fresh Food Voucher Programme piloted in Ethiopia

This article describes Concern Worldwide’s experience implementing a Fresh Food Vouchers programme (FFVP) linked to a targeted SFP programme (TSFP) in Wolaiyta Zone of the Southern Nations Nationalities and People’s Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia in 2012. The FFVP was implemented within a larger programme aimed at promoting longer term food and nutrition security.

Issue 45, May 2013 (page 28)

An overview of REST’s implementation of the Productive Safety Net Programme

The Relief Society of Tigray (REST) has been in existence in Ethiopia for over 30 years, starting out as a relatively small organisation in 1978 in response to the needs of Tigrayan’s displaced because of drought and food insecurity to neighbouring Sudan.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 59)

Analysis of benefits of livestock exports from the Horn of Africa

The Feinstein Famine Centre has recently produced a new publication, Livestock Exports from the Horn of Africa: An Analysis of Benefits by Pastoralist Wealth Group and Policy Implications.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 31)

Angola Agricultural Programmes

An ICRC Evaluation.

Issue 5, October 1998 (page 23)

Animal husbandry and agriculture efforts toward programme sustainability

Bundibugyo District, situated on the western side of the Rwenzori Mountains, is one of the most disadvantaged districts in Uganda.

Issue 33, June 2008 (page 35)

Assessing seed systems in relief operations

Summary of published paper.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 9)

Barriers to resilience: chronic poverty, climate change and disasters in the southwest of Bangladesh

This assessment was conducted by Solidarités International in partnership with local NGO, Uttaran. The article was compiled by the authors, thanks to Julie Mayans, Food Security and Livelihoods Technical Advisor at Solidarités International for her support in the process.

Issue 45, May 2013 (page 47)

Campaigning with coffee farmers in Haiti (Special Supplement 3)

Oxfam GB has been working with poor coffee producers in northern and eastern Haiti since 1992, raising awareness of their rights and mobilising communities to take control of their lives.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 43)

Cash and Vouchers in Emergencies

Summary of published paper.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 15)

Cash grants and cash for work in Sri Lanka (Special Supplement 3)

Following the devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean on 26th December 2005, Oxfam GB scaled up its activities in Sri Lanka and opened an office in the southern province of the country.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 31)

Cash interventions as an alternative to food aid

Summary of draft review.

Issue 12, April 2001 (page 8)

Cash supported income generation activities in Southern Sudan

Many ACF Food Security and Livelihood team members have contributed to the overall success of the IGA project and its implementation.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 53)

Cash transfers in emergencies: a review of recent experiences

Summary of Review.

Issue 13, August 2001 (page 4)

Cash transfers protecting dietary diversity during food crisis

Summary of working paper.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 19)

Cash-based responses in emergencies

Summary of published research.

Issue 31, September 2007 (page 9)

Cash-for-work in urban setting in Guinea

Accion Contra el Hambre (ACF-E) is implementing a project to support low-income populations in urban areas of Guinea, funded by the European Union.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 27)

Challenges to Livelihood Support Programming in South Sudan (Special Supplement 3)

AAH’s interventions in Southern Sudan have mainly been emergency responses in the nutrition, health and food security sector.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 63)

Child survival during the 2002-2003 drought in Ethiopia

Summary of published research.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 9)

Chronic Malnutrition: a Problem not Addressed by SFPs

An Appeal for a Development Programme by MSF Spain in Mandera District, Kenya.

Issue 7, July 1999 (page 12)

Comparing cash and food transfers: findings from a pilot project in Sri Lanka

This field article shares the findings of a pilot cash transfer project that gives valuable insight into household expenditure and consumption patterns in cash-receiving and food-receiving households over a three-month period in Sri Lanka.

Issue 30, April 2007 (page 18)

Conclusions to 'For Food Crisis to Fair Trade' (Special Supplement 3)

Enormous progress has been made over the past few years in food security and livelihoods programming in emergencies.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 64)

Cost of the Diet – novel approach to estimate affordability of a nutritious diet

This article provides an overview of a novel method developed by Save the Children UK to calculate the cost of an ideal diet, with results from two case studies and a discussion of the limitations to the approach and intended next steps for its development.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 21)

Critical gaps in drought response in Greater Horn of Africa

Summary of published research.

Issue 28, July 2006 (page 8)

Crop failure in Dalocha, Ethiopia: a Participatory Emergency Response:

Howell. P (1998), Disasters, Volume 22, No 1, March 1998, pp57-76 The following is a summary of a paper recently published in Disasters. The views expressed are those of the author. .

Issue 4, June 1998 (page 7)

CRS seed vouchers & fairs – an innovative approach to help farm communities recover from disaster

Summary of internal evaluation.

Issue 15, April 2002 (page 22)

De-stocking in Kenya (Special Supplement 3)

The drought in 1999-2001 was one of the most severe in recent history in Kenya. Nearly three million pastoralists and agro-pastoralists were considered at risk.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 52)

Delivery of Social Protection Programmes in Kenya

This article describes Oxfam’s early experiences in the Hunger Safety Net Programme, specifically piloting methodologies for delivery of social protection programmes. Based on a field visit to Turkana District, Kenya, it may not necessarily reflect the experience in other districts of the programme.

Issue 37, November 2009 (page 26)

Destocking to improve food security in drought - prone Ethiopia

This article describes Care Ethiopia’s experiences of a destocking programme in Ethiopia, and the lessons they learned for future similar interventions.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 22)

Donkey feeding in IDP camps in Darfur (Special Supplement 3)

According to the UN, the number of war-affected people in greater Darfur was about 2.5 million in July 2004, of whom 85% were IDPs.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 52)

Donor debate over food for cash

Summary of published report.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 15)

Dynamics of livelihood diversification in post-famine Ethiopia

Summary of published paper.

Issue 17, November 2002 (page 11)

Effects of a conditional cash transfer programme on child nutrition in Brazil

Summary of published research.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 16)

Effects of agricultural and nutrition education projects on child health in Malawi

Summary of published research.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 21)

Emergency Food Security and Livelihoods Project in Amhara and Oromia regions

Oxfam UK has been working in Ethiopia for close to 30 years. Oxfam’s flagship coffee programme linked with the international coffee house, Starbucks, has enabled the organisation’s unique positioning within agriculture and livelihoods programming in Ethiopia.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 18)

Emergency Food Security and Livelihoods Project in Amhara and Oromia regions

This article is based on a longer publication entitled ‘Designing and Implementing a Rural Safety Net in a Low Income Setting: Lessons Learned from Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program 2005-2009’ by Will Wiseman, Julie Van Domelen and Sarah Coll-Black.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 25)

Emergency food-based programming in urban settings

Summary of published research.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 14)

Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA) tool

This article describes a work in progress by Oxfam GB in developing a new tool to enable emergency practitioners to map and analyse markets in emergencies.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 3)

Enset - The ‘False Banana’ as Food Security

This article describes Self Help Development International’s experiences of using the staple crop, Enset, in their programming in Ethiopia, and the potential it holds for improving food security in drought affected areas.

Issue 22, July 2004 (page 3)

Evaluation of the Response to the Montserrat Volcano

Published Evaluation.

Issue 10, July 2000 (page 15)

Evaluation of the Wajir Relief Programme 1996-98

Published Evaluation.

Issue 10, July 2000 (page 14)

Exit strategies in OVC programming in Namibia

ENN recently visited several collaborative FAO-WFP programmes in Swaziland and the Caprivi region of north-eastern Namibia – both share some of the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS (42.6% in Swaziland, 40% in Namibia). In both countries, FAO and WFP became involved through emergency operations (EMOPs).

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 16)

Famine Avoided Despite Drought and ‘Zud’ in Mongolia

Summary of published paper.

Issue 20, November 2003 (page 9)

Farming in Bags: Micro Gardening in Northern Uganda

The Acholi region of Northern Uganda (Kitgum, Pader and Gulu districts) has been affected by rebel activities since 1986.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 3)

Feasibility of private micro flood insurance provision in Bangladesh

Summary of research.

Issue 41, August 2011 (page 16)

Food incentive interventions in post-conflict Afghanistan

The recently dominant models for UN and NGO interventions in Afghanistan have been food for work (FFW), food for asset creation (FoodAC), and food for education (FFE).

Issue 14, November 2001 (page 2)

Food security – protection links in Liberia (Special Supplement 3)

Direct effect of conflict on livelihoods and food security Violence and the threat of violence over 14 years led to severe loss of livelihood assets through looting, destruction and lack of maintenance which negatively impacted on ability to sustain livelihoods and grow or buy sufficient food in Liberia.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 62)

Food vouchers in Zimbabwe (Special Supplement 3)

The food voucher programme was designed to target the most vulnerable between December and February, the most food deficit months in Zimbabwe.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 42)

Food, Economic and Social Security in Azerbaijan

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 paralysed the economy leading to widespread unemployment in the region, including Azerbaijan.

Issue 24, March 2005 (page 12)

Food, goats and cash for assets programmes during emergency drought response inKenya

The vast majority of humanitarian aid worldwide (90%) is provided as in-kind transfers such as food, livestock, seeds, and shelter rather than in the form of cash.1 However, it is being widely observed that there is an ongoing trend, exhibited by humanitarian organisations and governments alike, moving towards less traditional modes of relief intervention, especially cash transfers.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 39)

From emergency food aid to sustainable food security: 10 years of agricultural recovery in Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a country of breathtaking beauty inhabited by poets and warriors.

Issue 15, April 2002 (page 7)

Gender impact analysis of unconditional cash transfers in south central Somalia

Summary of published research.

Issue 45, May 2013 (page 19)

Global food price crisis: lessons and ideas for relief planners and managers

Summary of published research.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 9)

Grassroots seed multiplication in Ethiopia

George Jacob is communications offi cer with the Irish agency, Self Help Development International.

Issue 31, September 2007 (page 21)

Has financial speculation in food commodity markets increased food prices?

In recent months, prices of rice, wheat, corn, palm oil and other essential staples have increased dramatically, leading to much debate about “the end of cheap food”.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 28)

Helping homestead gardeners mitigate the impact of soil salinity

Homestead food production (HFP) is an effective way to help poor families increase access to nutritious food and new sources of income.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 64)

Impact of cash transfers on child nutrition in Niger

Summary of evaluation.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 40)

Impact of conditional cash transfers in Mexico

Summary of published research.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 16)

Impact of livestock support on animal milksupply and child nutrition in Ethiopia

Animal milk has long been recognised as an important component of pastoralist diets across the world. As a nutrient-dense food, milk is known to contribute a high proportion of the nutrients, such as high quality protein and micronutrients, to the pastoralist diet.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 9)

Impact of restocking on animal genetic resources after disaster

Summary of published research.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 8)

Improving food security in vulnerable households in Swaziland

Summary of evaluation.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 31)

Income and employment support (Special Supplement 3)

The provision of cash as an emergency response has the potential to impact on all elements of the livelihoods framework by providing the means to protect or recover assets, support livelihood strategies and meet basic needs, or to support institutions (for example, credit systems).

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 23)

Income generation in Guinea Conakry (Special Supplement 3)

Since the 1990s, Liberia, Sierra Leone and later on the Ivory Coast, have been embroiled in conflict. This has led to a mass exodus of refugees to neighbouring countries, particularly Guinea, which has received 150,000 people.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 33)

Increasing Protein to Poultry

Poultry can be an important source of food following drought and crop failure.

Issue 8, November 1999 (page 12)

Issues and challenges for livelihoods programming in emergencies (Special Supplement 3)

The previous sections of this supplement have highlighted various challenges in livelihood support programming in emergencies.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 54)

Junior Farmer Field Life Schools in Namibia and Swaziland

Thanks to James Breen, FAO Regional Emergency Agronomist in South Africa, for coordinating the production of this field article, John Hourihan, Senior Officer in the Gender and Population Division of FAO, and a Lead Technical Officer for the JFFLS, for his technical input, our partners including FAO, WFP, UNICEF, US Peace Corps and various donors for their ongoing support of this initiative.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 19)

Land Reform in Tajikistan

Issue 14 of Field Exchange carried an article by Frances Mason on Action Against Hunger's assessments of the causes of nutritional vulnerability amongst the population in Tajikistan, following cessation of the civil war and signing of the peace accord in 1997. One of several factors identified in this analysis was failure of the land reform programme. The article below describes a further study by Action Against Hunger on the land reform process which unpicks, in more detail, the array of political, institutional and cultural factors impeding progress. (Ed).

Issue 24, March 2005 (page 3)

Lessons From a Microfinance Pilot Project in Rwanda

In 2001, Concern initiated a 3-year action research project on microfinance, funded by the Department for International Development-UK, and involving qualitative research in Angola, Cambodia, Mozambique and Rwanda.

Issue 20, November 2003 (page 3)

Lessons on Cash for Work in Somalia

Summary of published research.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 11)

Letter on microfinance project in Rwanda, by Elisabeth Nyffenegger

I would like to comment on the article in the November issue of Field Exchange, concerning the microfinance project in Rwanda .

Issue 21, March 2004 (page 23)

Linking early warning system information to response

The semi–arid to arid district of Isiolo covers an area of 25,605 square kilometres and is one of 10 districts of Eastern Province in Kenya.

Issue 9, March 2000 (page 19)

Livelihood assessment approaches in emergencies

Summary of published review.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 10)

Livelihoods under siege in Dafur

Summary of unpublished study.

Issue 27, March 2006 (page 8)

Livestock and livelihoods in emergencies

Summary of report.

Issue 16, August 2002 (page 4)

Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS)

The development of international guidelines and standards for the design, implementation and assessment of livestock interventions to assist people affected by humanitarian crises is now underway.

Issue 30, April 2007 (page 14)

Livestock Feeding Support as Drought Response

Summary of research.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 9)

Long term strategies to target vulnerability in Somalia

Summary of published paper.

Issue 17, November 2002 (page 3)

Market Analysis and Emergency Needs Assessment

Summary of background technical paper.

Issue 21, March 2004 (page 9)

Market-led Livelihood Recovery and Enhancement Programme and integrating ENAs

Food for the Hungry Ethiopia (FHE) began working in Ethiopia in 1984 through aid efforts in response to the famine at that time. In the beginning, FHE operated through partner organisations, delivering emergency food aid to those affected by the famine.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 57)

Micro-credit in refugee situations

Summary of published research.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 12)

Micro-finance as livelihood support in urban Argentina (Special Supplement 3)

The December 2001 Argentinean crisis highlighted the serious social and economic problems faced by the population. Several years of negative growth and an increase in unemployment led to social collapse.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 34)

Microfinance institutions and a coastal community’s disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process in Bangladesh

Summary of published research.

Issue 45, May 2013 (page 11)

Milk Matters: Improving Health and Nutritional Status of Children in Pastoralist Communities

The authors examine the role of milk in the diets of children in pastoralist communities in Ethiopia, including the links between seasonal availability of milk with child nutritional status and priority interventions to address this.

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 10)

Milling vouchers in Dafur to optomise food aid

Global food aid deliveries reached a record low in 2007. They declined by 15% to 5.9 million tons, the lowest level since 1961.

Issue 34, October 2008 (page 4)

Money for work in East-Timor

Summary of report.

Issue 12, April 2001 (page 23)

Multi-storey gardens to support food security

Addressing food insecurity in resource poor settings is difficult in any context. However, in protracted refugee camp situations, where people are almost entirely dependant on humanitarian assistance, the challenges are even greater.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 39)

New Guide on Cash-Transfer Programming in Emergencies

In a food crisis, distributing cash in a targeted manner can often meet people’s immediate needs more quickly and appropriately than providing food aid or other commodities. Cash gives people choice and preserves their dignity.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 19)

New guidelines for livestock emergencies

Following the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan, several humanitarian organizations came forward to help households who had lost their livestock to rebuild herds and flocks by providing replacement animals.

Issue 36, July 2009 (page 17)

New Red Cross Guidelines for Cash Transfer Programming

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement have just published Guidelines for Cash Transfer Programming.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 16)

Nutrition in Commercial Farms Finding the right plaster for the wound

Children living in Large Scale Commercial Farms in Zimbabwe, most of which are owned by white farmers, have higher rates of undernutrition than children living in communal areas.

Issue 1, May 1997 (page 15)

Oxfam evaluation of Cyclone Sidr response

Summary of evaluation.

Issue 35, March 2009 (page 30)

Oxfam’s Somaliland-Ethiopia Cross Border Drought Preparedness Project

Oxfam’s Somaliland-Ethiopia Cross Border Drought Preparedness Project is implemented as a component of Oxfam GB’s 15-year regional pastoral initiative that covers six countries in the Horn and East Africa.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 14)

Partnership and Disaster Response (and Post Script)

Save the Children Fund (SCF UK) has been working in Bangladesh since the Bhola cyclone of 1970.

Issue 6, February 1999 (page 12)

Political economy of adaptation through crop diversification in Malawi

Summary of article.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 27)

Post-drought restocking Can its impact be sustainable?

This article reflects some of the findings of Ahmed’s MSc thesis on post-drought restocking of pastoral households (2007).

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 90)

Postscript to 'Nutrition in commercial farms'

As co-editor of Field Exchange, and having just completed an evaluation of the CSFP in Zimbabwe for ODA, Jeremy had the following comments on this piece.

Issue 1, May 1997 (page 16)

Profile and overview of the church’s role in emergency response

The Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus (EECMY) was established as a national church in Ethiopia in January 1959. As part of the mission of the church, EECMY set out to work in the areas of health, education and community development under its Development Department.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 22)

Rapid response and long-term solutions: Christian Aid and food security in Ethiopia

Food insecurity is a deep-rooted problem for Ethiopia. With almost half the country’s population of 78.6 million living in deep and long-term poverty, many people are vulnerable to drought and moderate and severe acute malnutrition.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 49)

Redistribution of Commercial Farms in Zimbabwe

In Field Exchange 1 we reported on the nutritional problems of workers on Zimbabwe's large commercial farms. After 17 years of independence many Zimbabwean workers still find themselves landless and working on these large white owned farms.

Issue 3, January 1998 (page 16)

REEP experiences in Western Kenya

A communications graduate from Dayster University in Kenya, Mary Makopkha originally worked as a freelance journalist for several publications. She founded REEP (Rural Education and Economic Enhancement Programme) in 1997 to spearhead the fight against HIV/AIDS and other issues affecting her Butula-Busia community.

Issue 25, May 2005 (page 26)

Remittances during crises

Summary of published paper.

Issue 31, September 2007 (page 7)

Review of Integrated Food Security Programme in Malawi

Summary of published review.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 64)

School Feeding Programme in Zambia

This article describes the experiences of a school-feeding programme supported by the World Food Programme through Project Concern International (PCI).

Issue 25, May 2005 (page 22)

SDC online platform on cash transfers

The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) has launched an information platform on cash transfer projects in humanitarian aid.

Issue 30, April 2007 (page 14)

Seed security in southern Sudan

Summary of published paper.

Issue 19, July 2003 (page 12)

Seed vouchers and fairs in Zimbabwe - CRS (Special Supplement 3)

In 2001/2, Zimbabwe experienced one of the worst droughts in ten years. Other factors which contributed to create a food crisis included economic decline, characterised by high inflation and unemployment, reliance on a single staple crop (maize) and detrimental government policies.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 51)

Shopping for Answers in Southern Sudan

Draft Report.

Issue 7, July 1999 (page 5)

Special Focus on Targeting

The recent spate of reports and articles on targeting emergency food aid shows the resurgence of interest in this subject.

Issue 8, November 1999 (page 3)

Starting up JFFLS - Observations from Caprivi region, Namibia

This article is based on interviews by ENN with Patrick Karanja, FAO Caprivi; Jefitta Chikwanda, WFP Caprivi; James Muchilajm one of the school patrons at Seim Nujoma Combined School, Kebbe, and ENN visits to Seim Nujoma Combined School and Lusese School sites in Caprivi with WFP in August 2006.

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 22)

Study on hygiene practices and market chain of milk and milk products in Somalia

Since 2006, Vétérinaires Sans Frontières - Germany (VSF) has implemented several projects in Somalia. The VSF strategy focuses mainly on improving food security and value chain development. Past interventions have achieved significant improvements in supporting the production of ‘safer’ milk and compliance with minimum standards in milk marketing.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 24)

Summary of the Oxfam Review of Bangladesh flood response

Between July and October last year Bangladesh suffered severe flooding regarded as the worst in living memory: two-thirds of Bangladesh was affected resulting in widespread disruption and damage to homesteads and crops.

Issue 8, November 1999 (page 26)

Supplementary Feeding in Mandera: The Right Intervention?

Central Mandera is located in northeastern Kenya, 2 km west of Somalia and 5 km south of the Ethiopian border.

Issue 6, February 1999 (page 26)

Support for primary production (Special Supplement 3)

This section focuses on supporting agricultural production, in particular farming and livestock production, as livelihood strategies.

Supplement 3, March 2006 (page 45)

Targeting Emergency Food Aid – Experiences in Ethiopia

Summary of a Published Paper.

Issue 6, February 1999 (page 10)

The dripkit watering system

The drip kit is made of a type of rubber hose with holes in it (you can either buy pre-holed ones or make the holes yourself with a special cutter).

Issue 29, December 2006 (page 31)

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church Development and Inter-Church Aid Commission

The Ethiopia Orthodox Church (EOC) is one of the oldest churches in the world. The church is also the largest denomination in Ethiopia with more than 40 million followers, which is approximately 40- 50% of the total population.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 75)

The experience of multi-storey gardens in Ethiopian refugee camps

Ethiopia hosts around 112,201 refugees. Approximately 1,564 reside as urban refugees, while the remainder live in eight different refugee camps. The majority of refugees are of Somali (K/Beyah, Shedr, Awbarre and Boqolmayo), Sudanese (Fugnido and Sherkole) and Eritrean (Mayani, Asayta and Shimelba) nationalities.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 36)

The impact of cattle eradication in Northern Botswana

Summary of published paper.

Issue 15, April 2002 (page 3)

The RAIN programme

Rises in global food prices have led to an increase in vulnerability for areas of the world that are net food importers, which includes many countries in Africa.

Issue 40, February 2011 (page 23)

Treatment of undernutrition in urban Brazil

In Brazil, 6% of children aged less than 5 years suffer from height-forage (HAZ) deficit, while the prevalence of this condition is higher (8.2%) among the poorest sector of the population. Moreover, the prevalence of HAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ) deficits among children in the 5-9 years age range is 6.8% and 4.1% respectively.

Issue 44, December 2012 (page 30)

Understanding the food crisis in Zimbabwe

The situation in Zimbabwe has spiralled into crisis as a result of complex underlying factors. First, the political environment is unstable and the government has been accused of poor governance.

Issue 18, March 2003 (page 33)

Valid Nutrition

The ENN recently interviewed Steve Collins and Paul Murphy from Valid Nutrition (VN) at a Central London Hotel.

Issue 39, September 2010 (page 46)

Vouchers and fairs as emergency response in DRC

Summary of evaluation.

Issue 38, April 2010 (page 34)

Vulnerability Mapping in Urban Afghanistan

This article describes vulnerability mapping carried out by ACF in Kabul, and how it has been used to inform programming and tailor interventions in the field.

Issue 22, July 2004 (page 20)

WFP Targeted Supplementary Feeding in Ethiopia

Summary of evaluation.

Issue 32, January 2008 (page 24)

WTO Negotiations on Improving Food Aid

This article details current negotiations in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) on improving the effectiveness and efficiency of food aid, based on research undertaken by Oxfam GB.

Issue 26, November 2005 (page 22)

‘Zap’ it to me: short-term impacts of a mobile cash transfer programme

Summary of working paper.

Issue 42, January 2012 (page 24)